From the French word "Pommelé” (pomme = apple) denoting a special regular figure in the veneer, which can remind people of apples (rounded or knobbed form, like the pommels of sword hilts).
Alternating spiral grain
The wood fibres run spirally around the trunk axis, where bands of annual rings turn alternately clockwise and anti-clockwise around the middle of the trunk (the axis).
Annual ring
Annual growth zone of a tree with clear separation between the wood produced during the vegetation phase (spring: -> earlywood) and the vegetation rest period (latewood).
As-cut pack
A pack made up of all the veneers produced from a complete log or flitch, which are offered and sold as veneers with all the qualities contained in the log. (Book matched).


Backing boards
The veneer block must be clamped in the machine to produce the veneer (slicing). The area clamped in the machine and held by the clamps cannot be made into veneer and is left over.
Veneer match, which has no figure in places.
Bark pocket
Bark within the heartwood, found mainly in grained woods, which has been overgrown by the heartwood. (Also called ingrown bark, inbark, bark seam).
A small bulge in veneer glued over the entire area, which is due to insufficient glue in this area.
Blue stain
Blue stains on the surface of the veneer, which can be caused by inadequate removal of water (too low heating output at pressing bar, too fast slicing) during slicing, as water standing on the surface of the veneer reacts with the constituents as a result of oxidation.
Bedroom length
Lengths of round wood (round timber) and veneers between 2.60 m and 3.20 m long. Bedroom quality is mostly higher than panel quality.
Especially in Birds' Eye Maple, the name given to the eye-shaped figure of the veneer, but can also occur in other species of wood (see Chap. 2.3.4).
Blade check
Cracks in the veneer caused by poorly set pressing bars in veneering machines (also called knife, cutting or lathe check).
Name for a log or part of a log in the log or veneer form (also called veneer log, flitch, log segment).
Block Mottle figure
Irregular form of Fiddleback or Ripple figure, which runs over the entire area of the veneer.
Name for a pack of veneer, mainly used by carpenters. This is because the veneer sheets are ordered and fold out like a book.
Book matched
Veneers which are produced from a single trunk/log and in which the matching within the trunk still exists.
Book matching
Method used to join veneers, in which consecutive veneer sheets are glued together with alternating front and rear side in order to obtain mirrored matching (see Chap. 3.1).
1. Raised spot or area with faulty gluing (see Blister)
2. Light-coloured natural wood discoloration, round or oval shaped
It is mostly stresses in the wood that lead to wavy or buckled veneers. If the buckling is extreme, the veneer can break when pressed.
Burr (Masur) figure
Figure or pattern of veneers, made from burrs (see Chap. 2.3.4). Burrs grow above the ground (Oak, Ash, Elm) or as a root burr under the ground (Madrona, Myrtle, Vavona, Californian Walnut). Partially figured burrs and logs are called Half-Burr or Clusters.
Burr/burl (node, bud, knot)
Name for a masur (burl figure) log, roundwood or veneer (masur).
A large woody excrescence with curly grain on a trunk/log. Cut open it supplies characteristic Burr (Burl/Masur) veneer.


"Cathedral" layup
"Figure" with uniform annual ring spacing and absolutely straight growth. A variation of crown (i.e. perfect arches). Sought after build up of the texture in Flamed figure packs. Is considered to be particularly elegant.
Disease in European Oak, which causes structural faults in the veneer, in advanced stage appears as an open defect.
Cracks in the wood, which follow the annual ring. Parts of the log with this defect are not suitable for producing veneer and sawn timber.
Only partly grained logs.
Coarse texture
The annual ring structure of quickly grown trunks, which produces an unwanted coarse figure in veneer.
Yellowish looking liquid forming on the surface of the veneer as a result of too rapid or too hot drying.
Veneer layer, which is glued at right angles to the grain of the top layers of a plywood board.
Veneer strips which are cut across the fibres (grain) and are used as decorative inlays.
Cross-band veneer
Veneers, which are glued perpendicular to the top layer to improve dimensional stability and are not visible.
Crotches and Buttresses
Typical figure of the veneer made from a branch fork. The more exactly the Crotch (Y) or Buttress is formed, the higher the value of the veneer (called pyramid figure in Germany).
Crown figure
See figured.
Crown veneer
A name for veneer that has been sliced tangentially from a log and has an oval or arched figure or pattern.
Type of processing through the stay log machine. Also called eccentric peeling.


Deciduous wood with hardly any conspicuous annual rings.
DIN 4079
Standard applicable to veneer production in Germany, in which the standard thicknesses are defined.
Direction of fibre / fibre
Growth, i.e. longitudinal direction of the tree (grain)
False Quarter:
Production technology of sliced veneers (see Chap.
Colours in the veneers differing from the required colour. E.g. green stripiness in Cherry.
Door length
Lengths of round wood (round timber) and veneers between 2.05 m und 2.40 m, which are required by the door industry.
Dry density
Abbreviation ρ, the mass of a unit volume of wood, expressed in g/cm³. The dry density is given for a specific wood moisture content. Most wood properties depend on the dry density (also called apparent density).
Dryer marks
See grid marks.


The part of the annual ring formed in spring.
End-grain cut
= cross-cut; across or perpendicular to the trunk axis.


Feather figure
Another term for "Pyramid" figure (Crotches and Buttresses).
= figure, pattern
Another name for a Crowned figure, Flat Sliced figure (see Chap. 2.3.4). Produced by slicing across the heartwood.
Cut figures are friezes with mostly half Crowns. Sometimes called Heart instead of Crown.
The pores can only be recognised with a microscope, e.g. in Maple, Pear, Cherry, Birch, Beech, Elm (also called microporous, small-pored, fine-grained, close-grained, fine-textured). These woods have a uniform figure.
Irregular veneer figure, which is mostly unwanted.
Flamed figure
See figured.
Individual figure markings, mostly starting from branches, are called Flash, also called Flares or Stria.
= crown cut, back-sawn, tangential section, plain cut, slash cut (see Chap. 2.1).
See block.
Bottom end of log in roundwood or veneer, frequently characterised by coarse annual rings and unwanted colour variations, coming from rootstock.
Coloured changes to the end grains of a log or the entire log if it is stored too long. Is facilitated by direct sunlight or excessive dryness. To prevent foxiness from occurring, the log is either waxed at the end grains or is sprinkled with water.
Striped veneer match without "figuring" (Rift or Comb Grain).
Furniture quality
Veneers with different lengths from 1.00 m to 4.00 m within a log, which can be used by the furniture industry.


Grid marks
Imprints of the dryer belts on the surface of the veneer, caused by faulty or improperly maintained dryer belts. They can cause difficulties during the surface treatment.
Black, spotted inclusions in Black Cherry veneer, which can jump from one veneer sheet to another.


Fine hair-like stains or patches, which occur especially in Pear and Maple, which can be spread over the entire surface of the veneer and are considered to reduce the quality.
See Cluster.
Term used to describe wood with higher density. Usually the wood of deciduous trees.
The heart or centre axis of the tree (also called stem axis or log axis).
Heart / heartwood
Inner part of the trunk cross-section, which has a different colour to normal veneer.
Heartwood crack (heart shake)
Stress cracks (radial end shake) originating in the middle of the trunk (pith). The location of the heartwood crack is decisive in dividing the log for slicing. Heartwood cracks in the veneer are open and cannot be veneered.
Horizontal slicing machine
Slicing machine in which the log/blade movement is horizontal.


Decorations made from veneer or other materials (e.g. metal or mother of pearl) which are laid in or glued onto wood, very expensive and is used in craft trades.
Inlay banding
A plain coloured or patterned veneer strip, which is used for decorative edges.
Inlay borders
Fine veneer strips (also called inlay strips, inlay banding), inserted to subdivide or separate areas of veneer.
Interiorwork length
Top-quality lengths of roundwood/logs and veneers over 2.65 m long.
Irregular heartwood
Irregularly formed heartwood.


Jährliche Zuwachszone eines Baumes mit deutlicher Abgrenzung zwischen dem in der Vegetationsphase (Frühjahr -> Frühholz) und dem in der Vegetationsruhe (Spätholz) entstandenen Holz.


Small, round or oval, solid deformed buds of branches.


The part of the annual ring, which grows during the last part of the growth period, i.e. after the spring (also called summerwood).
Section of a tree suitable for veneer or sawing.


Inlaid work made by joining together small pieces of veneer to form decorative patterns or pictures.
The joining of consecutive veneer sheets from a pack (flitch) or an entire log to form a larger veneer area (face) is called veneer matching. Because of their direct, consecutive order, the veneer sheets have approximately the same figure.
Mature wood trees
Do not have a coloured core, but their wood in the core is significantly lower in water content than in the outer layer (Pine, Spruce, Beech, Lime).
Dark stains or inclusions in the wood, especially in American Oak.
Veneer sheets of different thickness, or partially different thickness veneers.
Mis-sliced sheets are unavoidable. Up to 5 % of a veneer delivery may be mis-sliced.
Mould stain
Mould stains seen as discolouration in the veneer.


Feines, überwachsenes Stiftästchen (Wasserreißer), das auf der Rinde nur schwer gesehen werden kann. Im Hirnschnitt als quer über die Fläche verlaufender schwarzer Stift erscheinend.
Kleiner, meist sehr harter Ast, der zu Messerscharten führt. Besonders bei europäischem Ahorn.
Siehe Kondensat
kleine, runde oder ovale, fest verwachsene Astansätze


Open defect
Defect in the veneer, which forms holes. Loose knots, areas of rot, open heartwood cracks (heart shake), all have to be removed during processing. Solid deformed knots or branches are not open defects.
The pores are large and can be seen with the naked eye, e.g. in Oak, Ash, Walnut, Elm. These woods have a vivid figure.
Outer veneer
Better quality veneer, which is used for the visible top layers (faces) of a workpiece.


Cut packs of veneer, mostly bundled into packs of 16, 24 or 32 sheets or leaves, which contain consecutive veneer sheets. Usually the smallest sales unit (also called flitch, bundle, packet, parcel).
Panel length
Lengths of round wood (round timber) and veneers between 2.55 m und 3.30 m, which are required by the panel industry. Quality is mostly not as high as bedroom lengths.
A quantity of veneers prepared for customers, often sorted and assembled with uniform qualities.
Parquet marquetry
A similar process to marquetry. However, here the veneer is cut into geometric shapes, which are joined to form decorative mosaic patterns.
Figure and colouring of the veneer match.
Peeled veneer
Term used to described veneers made with a specific type of production (see Chap.
Black pin knots in Yew or European Beech veneers, which produce the typical figure of the Yew veneer. The more pepper and the more regular it is distributed over the surface, the higher the quality of the veneer.
Piano egg
A sought after layup of the pattern in the Flamed figure packs. Is required for the fronts and piano lids.
Pin branch
Small, mostly very hard branch, which results in slicing nicks. Especially in European Maple.
Pin knot
Fine, overgrown tiny pin knot (bole sprout), which is very difficult to see on the bark. Appears in the end grain cut as a black mark running across the surface.
Pith (medulla)
Starting point of the annual rings located in the middle of the tree trunk, brown colour.
See "Appled".
Relatively large cells of deciduous trees. They are more or less visible in the cross-section as round or oval openings and in the longitudinal cut as pore grooves or needle cracks. Their size, number and distribution is species specific.
See condensate.
Price appraisal
Defining the price for a veener log.


Quarter matching/four-way matching
Method especially common for burl figured (masur) veneer, in order to produce highly decorative areas and figures (fancy pattern, patterned figure). Four consecutive veneer sheets are matched twice and folded up once.


Radial veneer
A type of peeled veneer, which is produced by tapered peeling of the end of the log. The method is similar to that of sharpening pencils.
Reaction wood
Anomalous wood tissue, which has a negative effect on the useful value of the wood. The compression wood of the coniferous trees can be recognised by its high proportion of dark coloured latewood. The tension wood of the deciduous trees appears with a lightly silver shine.
Residual planks
See backing boards (wood leftover from slicing)
Resin pockets (galls)
Pockets of resin inclusion in resinous coniferous trees, which can cause open areas in the veneer and therefore reduce the quality.
Veneers made from quartered logs. See also frieze.
Rift cut
= radial cut. The cut runs along the medulla rays and perpendicular to the annual rings. The cut surface appears striped (see Chap. 2.1).
Ring pores
Deciduous wood with conspicuous annual rings.
Root figure
Figure in which the Burr (Burl/Masur) forms on the root. The knot is located either entirely or partly under the ground. Root knots are found in, e.g.: Myrtle, Walnut, Maple, Vavona.
Overgrown knot or branch, which leaves behind a clearly visible feature in the bark. The earlier the tree threw off the knot or branch, the more difficult it is to identify this feature in the bark.
Rotary peeling
Method of veneer production (see Chap.
Round trunk veneer
The presentation of veneers, which are laid up in the form of the original trunk.


The outer, light-coloured part of the wood between the bark and heartwood. In heartwoods different colour of the sapwood. The sapwood is usually cut off for veneers. In the case of several wood species, e.g. Palisander and European Walnut, the sapwood is used for decorative purposes.
Sawn (saw-cut) veneers
Veneers made by sawing (see Chap.
Sheet quantity
The number of sheets or leaves of veneer in a pack.
Short end
Lengths of round wood (round timber) and veneers less than 1.50 m long.
Short length
Lengths of round wood (round timber) and veneers between 1.50 m and 2.00 m.
The reduction in the dimensions of wood (and accordingly of veneer also) when moisture is given off.
Silver figures
Depending on the cutting angle used for slicing, the cells of the medullar rays become visible in different ways. Visual interruption in the overall pattern, which is desirable in several wood species, e.g. Plane tree. Particularly marked in Oak.
Single packs
Packs of veneer taken out of the regular sequence of a log, so that they no longer match; mostly low qualities or friezes.
Sliced veneer
Term used to described veneers made with a specific type of production (see Chap.
Method of veneer production (see Chap.
Slicing nick
A diagonal notch across the veneer sheet caused by a damaged knife. Typical slicing error, which calls into question further use of the veneer.
Slip matching
Method of joining veneers in which the consecutive veneer sheets are glued only with the front side (see Chap. 3.1).
Term used to describe wood with low density. Usually coniferous trees. However, there are also soft deciduous trees, such as Poplar or Alder.
General name for dark, solid colour changes that have formed. Depending on the wood species and cause, a differentiation is made between gum, hairs, resin pockets, bark ingrowth, sugar, etc. Also called spatter or spots.
Spiral grain
Spiral growth of a tree, which is caused by external effects, e.g. wind. Severe spiral grain can cause matching problems because the annual rings detach from each other and leave open spaces, which is why they are mostly sawn.
Starter packs (end packs)
The first and last packs of a flat-sliced log. These packs are mostly figured, are shorter and have a lower value.
Stress crack
Different growth zones and growth speeds (weather side) in a trunk cause density differences to occur, which can cause stresses in the roundwood (log). If the tree is felled, stress cracks can occur, which call into question its suitability for veneer. Problem especially in Beech.
More or less clear different coloured stripes, mostly considered to reduce the quality. Above all, familiar in European Oak.
Stripy grain veneer
See frieze.
Bottom end of a trunk / log (also called stub).
The substrate material onto which the veneer is attached.
The increase in dimensions of wood (and accordingly of veneer also) when moisture is absorbed as a result of storage of water in the cell wall.


Tegernseer Gebräuche
Set of standards commonly recognised in the timber industry in which general rules are defined for the sawing and veneer industry (e.g. quality designations for sawn wood, tolerances regarding veneer thicknesses and defective sheets, etc.).
Zones formed by irregular annular ring build-up in coniferous trees, which are particularly hard and therefore cause difficulties during veneering (compression wood, pressure wood, glassy wood, redwood, hard streaks, bullwood).
Thick cut
Veneers that are produced in thicknesses different to those specified in the DIN standard. The normal thicknesses are 0.9 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm and 2.5 mm.
Thickness of veneer
In Europe thicknesses between 0.5 and 0.65 mm are usual. In Asia the veneers used are mostly between 0.2 and 0.3 mm thick. In general, veneers that are 1 to 3 mm thick are called thick cut.
Top log
Top end of a log (roundwood or veneers).
Toughness (viscosity)
In irregularly grown or highly stressed trunks, buckling or waviness of the veneers. Can also be seen as darker colouring along the annual rings.
Tractor tracks
Typical block formation, especially in Beech; is usually thought to reduce the quality.
True quarter
Production technology of sliced veneers (see Chap.
Trunk/log figure
Burr figure log in which the burr is formed above-ground on the trunk. Such figures are: Oak, Ash, Poplar, Elm.
Thickness fluctuations caused by vibration of the veneer block on the slicing machine or incorrect pressure setting at the machine, which are regularly spread across the veneer sheet as cross-wise stripes.
Turn over
Presentation of a log, in which it is shown pack for pack.


Utility grade veneer
Lowest quality category of veneers, which are mostly used as cross-band veneers or for areas that are not visible. Also called backing grade. Can also be sold by weight.


Variegated figure
Irregular veneer match, intensity mostly dependent on incident light. Caused by different growth anomalies, which cause irregular figure.
Veneer sheet
Irregular veneer match, intensity mostly dependent on incident light. Caused by different growth anomalies, which cause irregular figure.
Vertical slicing machine
Slicing machine in which the log/blade movement is vertical.


Wavy / Wavy figure
Ribboning running in a direction across the tree axis in a tangential direction, with wavy fibre and annual ring development. Produces an irregular veneer match (see Variegated figure, Flake) (also called Curly figure).
Wavy block
See figures Chap. 2.3.4.
Wild figure
Irregular figure which changes direction and makes the wood difficult to machine.
A name for wide-ringed (coarse-grown, coarse-grained) wood with large pores.
Very fine blade nicks, which disappear when the surface of the veneer is sanded and therefore do not impair the veneer (also called burr).
Wood defects
Very fine blade nicks, which disappear when the surface of the veneer is sanded and therefore do not impair the veneer (also called burr).
Wood rays
Also called medullar rays. Cell tissue, radial in the cross-section of the tree which, depending on the cutting direction, is visible as lines, stripes or stria (Flake).


Yellow Gum
Yellowy brown flecks in American Black Cherry, which are considered to reduce the quality, as they are still visible after surface treatment.


Bei unregelmäßig gewachsenen oder stark unter Spannung stehenden Stämmen entstehende Welligkeit der Furniere. Kann sich auch als dunklere Farbtönung entlang der Jahrringe zeigen.
siehe Textur
Laubholz mit kaum auffälligen Jahrringen
Oberes Ende eines Stammes (Rundholz oder Furniere).